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t. 除了有一个老姑妈,她别无亲人。 Anna felt disappointed when she found out they had gone swimming without her. (without=except) 当安 娜发现除她外,他们都去游泳了,她感到很失望。 Lion Head Hill is not worth seeing except for its old temples. 除了那些古寺以外,狮头山没什么可看的。 Among other things, we are interested in drawing. 我们对图画和别的一些东西很感兴趣。(among之内即包括在内) 原状because of, owing to, due to 表语形容词 例:Owing to our joint efforts, the task was fulfilled ahead of schedule. 由于我们的共同努力,任务提前完成了。 注:Owing to 和because of 都做原因状语,而due to 只能做表语形容词。所以此句。owing to 的介词短语做原因状语。 AII our achievements are due to the correct leadership of our Party. 我们的一切成绩都归功于党。(due to 做表语形容词) under后接修、建中,of,from 物化分 例:The road is under repair now. 这条路正在修建中。 The now railway is stil under construction. 新铁路尚在修筑中。(不能用in) under discussion 在讨论中(不能用in) under considerat 在考虑中(不能用in) The desk is made of wood. 桌子是木头做的。(物理变化用of) The wine is made from grape. 这种酒是用葡萄酿造的。(化学变化) The bridge is made of steel. 这座桥是钢制的。(物理变化) Steel is made from iron. 钢是由铁炼成的。(化学变化) before, after 表一点,ago, later 表示一段 即before, after 常表示一个点的时间状语,而ago,later 常表示一段的时间状语。 例如:前天the day before yesterday;前年the year before last; 大上星期the week before last 等等都表示点状语的。 要想准确无误地使用好before 和ago, after 和later 比较困难,但要是以“点”和“段”来区别就容易得多。 例:晚饭前before supper 解放前before liberation 1970 年前before 1970 文革前before cultural revolution 国庆前before National Day 入大学前before coming to college 这些都是“点”状语,因为1970 年前即1970 年1 月1 日前。国庆节即10 月1 日前。 ago 表示一段时间。 例:一分钟前a minute ago 半小时前half an hour ago 两天前two days ago 一星期前a week ago 五年前five years ago 因为a minute, half an hour, two days, a week, five years等都表示一段时间,所以用ago。以及ten days later 等皆如此。 before 可接完成时,ago 过去级有限 这时的before 是连词(也可做介词) 例:We had scarcely left our school before it began to rain. 我们刚离开学校,天就下雨了。(完成时) I had studied French for four months before I came here. 我来这儿以前就已学了四个月法语了。(before 接成时) He fell ill three days ago. 他病了三天了。(ago 则只能接动词过去式,同时注意瞬间动词的问题。) He left two months ago. 两个月前他离开了。(同上) I met her a few minutes ago. 我在几分钟前碰到他了。(同上) since以来during 间,since 时态多变换 与之相比beside, 除了last but one。 即beside 的一般用法是“在......旁边", 但还有"和......相比”等特殊用法。 例:I feIt so weak in spoken English beside them. 和他们相比,我感到我的口语太差。 Beside work and study, all else was trivial. 同工作和学习比起来,其他一切都是小事。 除了last but one,即but 多指“除了”的意思,也有“倒数第几”的意思。last but one 即不是最后一个。 例:I haven‘t told anybody but one. 除了我爱人,我谁也没告诉。(除了) Who but a fool would study foreign language well if he is a hard working one. 如果他勤奋好学的话,除了傻瓜谁都能学好外语。(除了) Look at the last page but one. 请看倒数第2页。 He was the last but three in maths examination this time. 他这次数学考试成绩倒数第四。 They live in the next house but one. 他们住在隔壁过去一家。 复不定for、找,价,原,对,给,段,去,为,作,赞 复不定for,即用for 引出的不定式复合结构,也就是for 加名(代)加不定式;找,意为找到,提供; 价,意为价格、工资;原, 意为原因;段,意为时间或距离; 去,意为去某地或开往某地;作,意为作为; 赞,意为赞成(用于系表结构。) 例:It is high time for us to start. 我们不该再迟延了。 The most urgent thing is for us to get the preparation done. 员重要的事情是我们要把准备工作做好。 I don‘t think it advisable for him to study medicine. 我想她学医不适合。 Your parents and relatives are anxious for you to go to college. 你的父母和亲戚渴望你上大学。 My home town has changed too much for me to recognize. 我的家乡变化太大,简直认不出来了。 以上例句都是for 在不定式复合结构中的用法。 Someone is asking for you on the telephone. 有人找你接电话。(找) You‘d better write to me for more information about it. 如需更多这方面的资科和信息,你最好给我写信。(提问, 索要) They worked in the company for 200 yuan a month. 他们在这个公司干活,每月嫌200 元。(价格) How much did you pay for the second-hand colour TV? 这台用过的彩电你花了多少钱2(价格) Thank you very much for your coming. 谢谢您的光临。〔原因) Thank you for your warm hospitality. 谢谢您的热情款待。(原因) Forgive me for being tardy. 请原谅我迟到了。(原因) I‘m much obliged to you for telling me. 非常感谢你给我谈了这个情况。(原因) We have boundless admiration for your struggle. 对你们酌斗争我们无限钦佩。(对) Listening comprehension materials are good for training our minds. 听力材料对训练我们的脑子根有好处。(对) Take the bitter medicine. It‘s good for you. 吃下这药吧,对你有好处。(对) There is a telegram for Mr. Wang. 这有一份王先生的电报。(给) May I use it for a minute? 我用一会儿好吗?(一段时间) I followed the stealer for some distance. 我跟踪那个小愉一段路。(一段距离) The ship was for Dalian. 这破船开往大连。(去某地) We are off for Shanghai tomorrow. 明天我们去上海。(去某地) The medicine is for reducing your temperature. 这药是退烧的。(为……目的) After breakfast. I‘ll go for a stroll round the town. 吃完饭我要在城里到处走走。(为……目的) I‘ll keep the lighter given by a foreign friend for a souvenir. 我要把外宾送给我的打火机作为纪念。(作为) It is only meant for a joke. 这只是当笑话说说罢了。(作为) We are all for cutting down the cost of production. 我们都赞成降低生产成本。(赞成) 快到、对、向towards,工、学、军、城、上、北、南 例:It‘s getting on towards the end of term now. 现在已快到学期未了。(快到) Towards midnight my husband came back. 快到半夜了我的丈夫才回来。(快到) Our teacher was very lenient towards us. 我们的老师对我们很松。(对) What you have invented is really a big contribution towards our company. 你所发明的对我们公司确实是一大贡献。(对) The boy came running towards his mother. 那个男孩向他母亲跑去。(向着) 所谓工、学、军、城、上、北、南,是说up 和down 的用法。这也是汉英翻译时要注意的。例如:招工,上大学,参军,进城, 上山,向北方等都属于up。而相反的下乡,向南,落榜等都属于down。“大军南下,北上抗日”大概由此而来。 but for 否定用虚拟,复合介词待后言。 but for是“若不是”的意思。 例:But for our great Communist Party, we could never have today‘s happiness. 若没有伟大的共产党,我们决不会有今天的幸福生活。 But for this chemical the vapour inside the system would not have been absorbed so completely. 若没有这 个化学剂的作用,系统内的蒸气不可能被吸收得这么彻底。 but for将在虚拟语气中详讲。 以下固定搭配不可随意改动: 例:in general 一般说来 in short 简言之 in other words 换言之 in my opinion 依我看 in simple words 简言之 on the whole 基本上 for instance 例如 for short 简称 after all 毕竟 above all 首先 此外考试中常出现的成语前置词也须牢记其用法。 by appearance 从外表 by the atd of 借……的帮助 by far ……得多 by course of ......照......常例 by reason of 由于 by request 应邀 by right of 由于凭借 out of date 过时 out of harmony with 与...... 不一致 out of harmony with 摆脱困境 out of bounds 超出权限 out of proportion to 与......不相称 out of reach 力量不及 out of one‘s wits 不知所措 out of question 没问题 out of the question 不可能的 to a great extent 很大程度上 Io one‘s taste 合......胃口 to one‘s thinking 据……看来 to one‘s heart‘s content 尽情地 to the utmost 尽力 behind schedule 不准时 behind the times 过时的 behind the curtain 在幕后 within reach 能力所及 within a hair‘s breadth 差—点 wlthin a stone‘s throw of 在附近 beyond description 无法形容 beyond reason 毫无道理 beyond reproach 无可指责 beyond one‘s expectation 超出......范围 beyond expression 无法表达 ing 型由于、鉴,除了,除外与包含。 之后,关于,在……方面,有关介词须记全。 最后,英语中v.+ing分词转化而成的特殊介词,更须注意,根据其语法功能,把它们同现在分词,动名词和连同区分开来。即: respecting 由于, 鉴于; considering 由于, 鉴于; excepting 除了; concerning 关于; excepting for 除 外; excluding除外; without excepting sb. 包含; including 包括,包含; following 在……之后; regarding 关 于; respecting 在......方面; concerning 有关; 例:considering 由于; Considering that table salt is the commonest source of sodium in food, the diet usually calls for eating salt-free foods. 由于食盐是钠在食物中普遍的来源,医生给病人规定的,饮食通常要求吃无盐食品。 respecting 鉴于: Respecting the heavy rain, we had to put off the match. 鉴于下大雨,我们不得不推迟了这场比赛。 excepting 除了: excepting 可单独使用,可以与always或否定词not 连用,也可以与for, without 之类介词连用。 Excepting one of his close friends, they were present at the party. 除了他的一个挚友外,他们都来赴宴了。 He is an honest man, excepting for his quick temper. 他是个老实人,只是("除了" 脾气暴躁。(同类比较except, 加for 异类记心间)。 Everybody is in higt spirits, always excepting him. 大家都情绪高昂,唯他"除外"(例外)。 Only a few survivors without excepting him were living in the settlement. 包括他在内,只有几个幸存者住在新拓居地。 including 包含: The new apartment consists of three rooms including the kitchen. 这套公寓有三间,包括厨房。 following 在......之后: 相当于after The week following his first vist to the newsroom he was appointed editor of the important column. 在拜访该报社编辑部的"第二个"星期,他放任命为该报重要专栏的主笔。 regarding 关于:相当于about Regarding research investment and number of researchers engaged in this field of research, the U.S.A. commands an overwhelming position followed by Japan. "关于"投入该领域研究的投资额和研究人员的数量,美国占压倒优势,其次是日本。 respectiong 在……方面: Respectiong education, health, medical care as well as production and labor technological development will have to be evaluated with due thought given to social systems and humanism. "在"教育、卫生、生产劳动"方面", 评价 技术的发展需根据社会制度和人道主义。 concerning 有关: The following are some of the arguments both pros and cons concerning computers, thinking, and artificial intelligence. 下面是“有关”计算机、思维和人工智能方面持赞成和反对态度的一些论据。 当然,这些ing 型的介词,在句子中也有分词、动名词和连词的语法功能。excluding 和including,表示排除与包含。 Last year British sales to the rigion were more than $8 billion, while French exports, excluding arms brought in around $3 billion. 去年,英国对这个地区的销售额达80 多亿美元,而法国的出口额(武器除外)约为30 亿美元。 Stress may deplete vitamin C in your body, as can smoking, drinking and a variety of drugs, not excepting aspirin. 生活紧张会耗尽你体内的维生素c,正如吸烟、饮酒、服用某些药物(包括阿斯匹林)一样。 至于介词与形容词、动词、名词的搭配以及复合介词(又称复杂介词)、介词词组与从句的变换则涉及更多的语法内

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