procedure bunch merely classify promote appetite appoint calculate expense involve settlement accumulate abandon tone reward technician nowhere altogether latter distinguished appearance
look out for ,on a large scale, year after year, pass away, name after, in detail, a bunch of, be suitable to, have…in common, belong to, a branch of, classify…into, base…on…, according to, have an appetite for, appoint…as…, lead a cosy life, be involved in, at one’s own expesse, give birth to
speak about procedures
I divide the stage into three parts…
It is very important in the middle part…
The last part is….
This is the whole case.
I gave an apple to the old man yesterday.
I appreciate walking along the street with my sweetheart.
6、 能力部分(writing a pocedure)
Look at the pictures and match each flower with its correct name.
2.Can you tell something about each flower? Where does it come from?
3.What is it used for?
4.Which flower is your favourite? Explain why.
5.What vocabulary will you need to talk about flowers and plants?
speak about procedures
I divide the stage into three parts…
It is very important in the middle part…
The last part is….
This is the whole case.
Period II and Period III
Look at the pictures and match each flower with its correct name
Which flower is your favorite? Explain why.
Why was Carl Linnaeus important to the history of botany as a science?
His system of grouping plants in families was unique, which based on the arrangement of the male and female organs in the flowers.
How many people are mentioned in the passage?
Carl Linnaeus Daniel Solander Joseph Banks Captain Cook
1. Before Linnaeus botany was ________．D
A．studied by doctors B．unknown to anyone C．fully developed D．a branch of medicine
2. Some economic species plants such as____ could help to develop local economies．C
A．rose and peony B．tea and apple C．cocoa and hemp D．Cocoa and lemon
3. It was ____ who made Kew a centre of scientific and economic research．A
A．Joseph Banks B．Captain Cook C．Linnaeus D． Daniel Solander
4.Paragraph one of the text mainly tells us ___ ．C
A．the importance of botany B．how to classify plant species into groups
C．Linnaeus’contribution to botany D．Linnaeus’discoveries about different species
5.Captain Cook made ___voyages altogether around the world. C
A．one B．Two C．Three D.four
1. How did scientists classify plants before Linnaeus?
Some scientists classified plants into herbs and trees, or according to the shape of the fruit, or whether they had flowers or not.
2. What were the goals of James Cook’s first voyage around the world?
To study the passing of the planet Venus across the sun; to record, classify and describe all plant and animal life observed during the trip; to search for an unknown southern continent.
3. Why did Joseph Banks have to supply his own money to equip part of the expedition?
Because the government would not pay for such a new field of science as botany.
4. What could be a possible explanation for the name “strawberry”?
When people plant strawberry, they spread straw under the fruit to reduce the necessary amount of watering.
Translate the following phrases into English:
1. 详细地 in detail
2. 处于支配的地位，负责 in charge of
3. 由……负责 in the charge of
4. 任命某人为…… appoint sb. as
6. 计算……之间的距离 calculate the distance between…
7. 一代一代传下去 pass on from one generation to the next
8.建于……之上；以……为基础 be based on
9.参与; 陷入 ……的活动 be involved in
10.根据;视……而定；按照 according to
11.搜索；寻找 search for
2.at the age of 在……岁时
3.look out for 警惕;留心;守侯
4.on a large scale 大规模地;大范围地
5.year after year 年年;年复一年
6.pass away 逝世
8.in detail 详细
9.take care of 关心;照顾
11.develop a lifelong friendship with 与……结存了终生好朋友
12.born into 出生
13.have an appetite for knowledge 有求知欲
14.appoint sb. as… 委派;任命某人为……
15.spread over 传播;流传
16.a great deal of 大量;许多(用于不可数名词)
17.lie in 在于
18.related to 与……有关
19.the key to 关键是(在于)
20.adapt to 适应于
21.be sunken into 堕入
1. Get the students to grasp the main idea of the text so as to improve their reading ability．
2. Get the students to learn the scientific way for the scientists to do their research work．一the way to think and observe．
3. Get the students to write a description of plants．
Teaching Important Points：
1. How to analyse fin article so as to grasp its main idea．
2. How to write a description according to the information given．
Teaching Difficult Point：
1. How to improve the students’reading ability---how to analyse an article.
1．Pair work or group work to make every student take an active part in the class．
2．Discussion to get the students to understand what they are 1earning better．
3．a tape recorder
Step I Greetings and Revision
Greet the whole class as usual．
T：In the last period。you were told to make sentences with the useful words and expressions in the text．Have you got prepared?(Ss：Yes．)Now read the sentences to us．Volunteer!One student，one sentence．
Sa：make attempt to do sth．
They made no attempt to escape．(at escaping)
The books in our school library are classified according to subject．
Group together in two!
He carries identification with him at all times when he is out．
He works to promote the friendship between the two countries．
They fight against privilege in order to create a fairer society．
He lives in a nice cosy little house．
Sh：have an appetite for
The enemy had no appetite for the fight．
He was appointed minister to a foreign country.
The scientists caculated when the spaceship would reach the moon with a calculator．
Sk：on a large scale
The work of reforming industry carried out in all provinces on a large scale．
The case involved several leaders．
He accumulated a fortune by investing wisely．
He found a baby abandoned by his parents.
Step II Preparation for Reading
T：So much for homework．Now open your books and turn to Page 169．Let’s read the new words and expressions of this period．Who will read them to us?
(Teacher asks some students to read the new words and expressions．While reading，let other students correct the mistakes made by the students．Then play the tape to get the students to fol1ow．Teacher may give brief explanation
about their usages when necessary．)
T：You’ve learnt something about Carl Linnaeus。Daniel Solander and Joseph Banks in the text we’ve just studied．And you’ve read about Michurin and Darwin．Today，we’ll learn about another two scientists Gregor Mendel and Gote Turesson．What did they do? What contribution did they make?After we’ve learnt the passage．I’II sure you’11 have a clear idea．
(Show the following on the screen．)
Now read the text fast and try to grasp the main idea of the text as much as possible. Then find answers to the questions on the sceen.
Answer the following questions:
1．What was Charles Darwin’s hobby when he was young?
2．What led Darwin to write his famaous book“On the Origin of Species”?
3．Who founded the science of genetics?
4．Who made contribution to the improvement of the output of crops according to the text?
(Students begin to read the taxt. After a few minutes, teacher says the following)
T：Have you finished?
T：Now give us the answers, please. One student，one question．
Sb：1．When he was young, Darwin enjoyed doing all kinds of experiments and studying physics, chemistry and later botany was his hobby.
Sc：2．When he was twenty-two years old，he was invited to take part in the scientific expedition on the five-year voyage led him to write his famous book：On the Origin of Species
Sd：It was the research work of Mendel that gave birth to the science of genetics.
Se：Mendel’s genetics and Turesson’s findings are both important to the output of crops．
T：What you said is right. Thank you for giving us such good a
StepⅣReading and Comprehension:
T：(Show the following on the screen)
Now let’s read the text again and discuss the questions on the screen. Pairwork or group work．
1．The research of Charles Darwin, Gregor Mendel and Cote Turesson is like pieces in a puzzle that show a complete picture when put together.
(1)What did Darwin discover about bird species in Galapagos?
(2)What did Mendel observe in his experiments with peas?
(3)Looking at wild plant species in Sweden，what did Turesson discover?
2．Complete the following sentence．
Darwin’s discoveries in Galapagos were based on differences______wild species，while Turesson’s observations showed that there are stable varieties___wild species．
3．That soil conditions are important to the output of crops was known more than 2000 years ago．Why are Turesson’s discoveries still important to agriculture then?
(Teacher goes among the students and joins the students in their discussion．)
T：(After some minutes’discussion．)Now give us your answers，please. Who will answer the first question?
Sf：He found 13 kinds of findes，related to each other in the structure of their beaks，tails，shape of body and colour of their feathers．The most curious fact was the differences in the size of the beaks．This could only be explained from the differences in habitat and source of food．The birds with broad beaks would eat hard seeds，while the birds with smaller beaks would eat soft seeds or insects．
T：Please give us the answers to the second question．
Se：He found that many characteristics were passed on from one generation to the next without influence by the environment．
Sh：I'll answer the last question of Part 1．He found evidence for the existence of stable varieties within species in nature．He showed that differences between plants of one species occurred as a result of the environmental conditions in their habitat．
Si：I think，in Part 2，for the first blank，we should fill in the words“of different，，and the second，“of the same’’．Am I right?
T: What do you think, Sj?
Sj：I think he is right．
T: For the last question, what are your opinions?
Sk：Soil conditions are important to the 0utput of crops．But that is one side of the question．The research by Darwin, Mendal and Turesson shows that both genetics and the environment are important to plants．If we don’t have good seeds，good soil conditions are not enough for us to improve the output of the crops．Am I right?
Ss：We agree with you．
(Teacher plays the tape after the students’discussion．Then teacher asks students to read the text aloud and find questions in the text．Teacher gives brief explanation to them．)
Step V Summary and Homework
T：Now let’s think about a question：What can we learn from the text?(Write it
on the blackboard．) Discuss it with your partner．(After a while．)Who can tell us what you think?
S1：We should observe everything carefully and think deeply，then we can draw fl
T：Very good．Now let’S see how the scientists observe and think．
(Teacher writes Observation，Thinking．Conclusion…on the Bb．)
T：So much for the text．Now today’s homework：
1．Make sentences with the words and phrases：whatever：lead sb．to do sth．；nowhere，variety；in view
2．Do Writing on Page 35．
In nature，there are varieties of environmental conditions for the plants to grow in．Some places are hot and dry and there is little rain while in other places it is cool and wet. So the same plants that in different places are quite different.
Let s take oanaeuons as an example. They are widespread and can be found almost everywhere．Their yellow flowers are beautiful and their leaves look like the teeth on a saw．The wind spread their flowers and seeds everywhere，so when they grow in hot and dry places，they are low and thin．Their flowers and leaves are short and light in colour．5—10 centimetres long．They grow close to the ground and their roots are deep in it．Their hearts are a little sunken into the earth，so that the rain water can flow from the leaves to the heart where the roots are．
But in places it is cool and wet，things fire different．They become higher and stronger and can grow as long as 15-20 centimetres．Theirleaves are broader and their flowers are larger．The colour of the flowers and leaves becomes darker green．If some weeds are taken here，there will be many of them a few weeks later．
A great Swedish scientist Cote Turesson said that differences between plants of one species occured as a result of the environmental conditions in their habitat．From dandelions we can see this clearly．
Step Ⅵ The Design of the Writing on the Blackboard
StepⅦ Record after Teaching
The chairman was quite familiar with the procedure for conducting a meeting.
The new work procedure is a great improvement on / over the old one.
The next procedure is as follows.
He complained to the manager, and by this procedure got the money back.
The first step in the procedure for making a kite is to build the frame.
Miss White received a bunch of flowers from her admirer.
a bunch of grapes; 一串葡萄
A bunch of children were at play.
I merely looked at the chocolate; I did not eat it.
They are not merely content to fill the stomach.
You don\'t have to be angry. He merely wanted to know the truth.
That was merely a guess of mine.
People who work in libraries spend a lot of time classifying books.
Eggs are classified according to size.
the identification of criminals by their fingerprints
I used my driver\'s license as identification.
Have you any identification?
His only means of identification was his passport.
vt. identify vt.
She identified him as her attacker.
I cannot identify this signature.
promote vt. n. promotion
He certainly ought to be promoted.
Our teacher has been promoted to headmaster.
The young army officer was promoted (to the rank of) captain.
2. 使(学生)升级 (+to)
Pupils who pass the test will be promoted to the next higher grade.
The Prime Minister\'s visit will promote the cooperation between the two countries.
He enjoys diplomatic privileges.
I had the privilege of meeting the queen.
Education should not be considered to be a privilege in a modern society.
It is a great privilege to know you.
appetite n. [U][C]
Exercise gave her a good appetite.
to lose one\'s appetite
At the moment she had no appetite for gossip.
an appetite for learning.
1.The father passed on the family\'s wealth to his son.
a wealth of examples许多例子 a wealth of oil丰富的石油
They appointed him (to be) manager.
He appointed Williams as his deputy in the city of York.
He was appointed chairperson of the committee;
We must appoint a new teacher at once to the mountain school.
Our visitors arrived at the appointed time.
They will appoint a date for the examination.
to appoint a time for the meeting
They appointed a place to exchange stamps.
I have an appointment with them in the evening.
The appointment of a new judge was reported in the newspaper.
Calculate vt. vi.
Has Edward calculated the result?
Our price has already been closely calculated. There is no room for reduction.
The scientists are able to calculate accurately when the spaceship will reach the moon.
They calculated the cost of a journey
I calculate that Aunt Lena will arrive at 8.00 p.m.
I calculate you\'ll get there in time.
Expense n. adj.expensive
I don\'t think we can afford the expense.
A motorcycle can be a great expense.
The expenses added up to $50.
He said the office expenses were too big.
What are the expenses of moving house?
3.代价 spare no expense不惜代价
We must spare no expense to save his life.
look out for 警惕，留心；寻找
1．watch out for；keep a watch for 密切注意；提防
When you\'re eating fish，look out for the bones．吃鱼的时候，当心鱼刺。
You must look out for catching cold．你得小心，不要感冒了。
2．seek if one can find寻找
Will you go to the station and look out for your uncle？你去火车站找你叔叔吗？
We have been looking out for a new house， but the ones we\'ve seen have all been too expensive．我们一直在找一所新房子，但是我们看的几所房子都要价太高。
Investors look out for better returns 投资者寻求好的回报
3． take care of照顾；照看
You needn\'t worry about me， I can look out for myself．你不用替我担心，我会照顾自己的。
on a large scale 大规模地
They are preparing for war on a large scale.
* involve vt.
That\'s no concern of mine. I\'m not involved.
Don\'t involve me in your quarrel!
All the children were involved in the school play.
This lesson involves a lot of work.
Tom is a man of great enterprise.
This enterprise is doing a good business.
The settlement of Africa by white people started 500 years ago.由白人进行的向非洲移民开始于500年前。
The British Empire had many settlements.
2. 解决 They are looking for a good settlement.寻找好的解决办法
accumulate vt. -lated, -lating，accumulation
They accumulated a huge mass of data.
He accumulated a good library.
Dust had accumulated during her absence.
abandon vt. -ed
The crew abandoned the burning ship.
The broken bike was found abandoned by the river side.
abandon one\'s home
He abandoned his wife and went away with all their money.
He finally abandoned his reformist ideas.
year by year 年年
The university gets bigger, year by year.
year after year年复一年
Tens of thousands of men, year after year, have travelled southwards to find work.
As soon as the sun comes out, the mist will pass away.
Grandpa passed away last night at midnight.
The old man passed away peacefully.
Ten days passed away and still there was no news about them.
The teacher is speaking in a high tone.
He spoke in a tone of command.
Mandarin Chinese has four tones.
Winners will be rewarded a trip to England.
How can I reward your kindness?
It is unfair that he gets very little in reward for his hard work.
A large reward is offered for the capture of the criminals.
He got a reward of $900 for catching the criminal
name after=name for 按...命名与（另一人）同名， name after 用…的名字命名
John was named after his uncle.
约翰与他叔父同名。The child was named after his father.随父亲起名
This building is named after a famous scientist。这座楼以一位著名科学家命名。
Some parents name their baby after themselves.
technician technical adj. technology technic(具体的)技术
In the winter break I went nowhere, just stayed at home.
The dictionary is nowhere to be found.
He had nowhere to go.
We camped out in the middle of nowhere last summer.
Some of the great men came out of nowhere.
They lived out in the country, miles from nowhere.
A tiger appeared from nowhere.
I am altogether on your side in this matter.
He bought altogether 500 hectares of land.
Altogether, exports are looking up.
John\'s appearance in the doorway was welcomed with shouts.
The singer made her first appearance in a concert in Boston.
She\'s made a number of television appearances.
The appearance of the old house completely changed.
The measures will enable us to double our output of bicycles.
2.输出;输出功率the power output of a transformer变压器的输出功率
3.作品artistic output 艺术作品
This latter point was of great importance.
Here are Tom and David; the latter is my brother.
He can distinguish a genuine antique from a reproduction.
I can distinguish my roommates by their footsteps.
I can distinguish them at a distance.
It is certainly important to distinguish between right and wrong.
Speeches distinguishes man from the animals.
Would you please explain the theme in detail?
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1．Review what can be used．
2．Review some important rules about the object．
Teaching Important Points:
1．Master the v-ing form and the infinitive used as the object．
2．Master the compound object and “it” used as the formal object．
Teaching Difficult Point
How to master the differences between the v-ing form and the infinitive used as the object．
Review，explanation and inductive methods.
Step I Greetings
Greet the whole class as usual
Step II Revision
T：Please look at the sentences on the screen．Try to find the object in each sentence．
(Show the following on the screen)
l．I consider it my duty to help you.
2．She will buy me a birthday present.
3．I found his report interesting.
4．I’m considering changing my job.
5．He decided to go abroad for futher study．
6．She said that she was sick that day.
(Ss prepare for a few minutes and then teacher asks some students to say their answers．)
T：Look at the first sentence．Who will try?
Sa：I'll try．In this sentence，“it”is used as the formal object and the infinitve “to help you”is the real object．
T：Good．We know that a v-ing form and clause can also be used as the real object in such a sentence pattern．Do you remember?
T：Who can make a sentence using a v-ing form as the real object?
Sb：We thought it no good telling him that．
T：Good．Who can make a sentence with a clause as its real object?
Sc：They want to make it clear to the public that they do an important and necessary job．
T：Good．Sit down，please．Now，let’s look at the next sentence．Who wants a
Sd：In this sentence，。me”is the indirect object and“a birthday present”is the
T：Right．We know that some verbs can take both a direct obiect and an indirect object，such as：give，lend，bring, fetch．take。pass，send，ask，write，tell，
(Write the verbs on the Bb．)You should try to remember them after class，0K?)
T：Now，the third sentence．Li Jing，you try，please．
Se：In this sentence，“his report’’is the object and“interesting”is the object
T：Good．Please sit down．We know that the infinitive and the noun can also be used as the object complement besides the adjective．Who can give us example．
Sg：They elected him chairman of the club．
T：Good．Now，1ook at the fourth sentence．Who’d like to have a try?
Sh：In this sentence“changing my job”is the object．
T：Right．Can you say some verbs that can only be followed by the v-ing form?
Si：Yes．Consider，delay，admit,enjoy，escape，finish，mind，miss，practise，require，suggest，avoid，keep，advise，and so on．
T：(Write the verbs on the Bb．)Good．Please sit down．Now，please look at
the fifth sentence．Zhang Kai，you try, please．
Sj：The object in it is“to go abroad”．
T：Right．And we’ve learnt that some verb~can only be followed by infinitives．Can you say more verbs like this?
pretend，refuse，wish，fail，afford，determine，and so on．
T：(Write the verbs on the Bb．)Very good．Please sit down．We’ve learnt some verbs that can be followed by either a v-ing form or an infinitive．But some of them have the same meaning when they take a v-ing form or an infinitive．Who can give some examples?
Sl：Continue，like，love，begin，start，bear，attempt，hate and so on．
T：(Write the words on the Bb．)Good．And some of them have different meanings when they take a v-ing form or an infinitive．What are they?
Sm：Forget，remember，regret，try, stop, need，mean and so on．
T：(Write the verbs on the Bb．)Now，look at the last sentence. What’s the object in it?
Step Ill Consolidation
T：Good．Today we’ve reviewed The Object．Now，let’s do some exercises to master it better．Look at the screen．please．you can have a discussion with your partner or discuss them in groups of four．When you all finish them．we’11 check the answers．
(Show the following on the screen．)
I．Fill in each blank using the correct verb form．
1．Xiao Li is used to ____(do)the work．
2．Scientists have found ways to prevent air from ______ (pollute)．
3．Missing the bus means_______ (walk) home．
4．He forgot ______ (hand) the manager his business card so he handed him
5．Tom’s parents don’t allow Tom _______ (go)swimming．
6．I can’t help ________ (paint)the wall, for I’ve got a lot of work to do．
7．She failed ________(buy)a film ticket．
8．I don’t think it easy for_______ (answer)the question．
9．Betty didn’t expect him ______ (treat)like that．
10．I can’t but ______ (ask) _______ (give)another chance．
1．doing 2．being polluted 3．walking 4．handing／having handed 5．to go
6．(to)paint 7．to buy 8．to answer 9．to be treated 10．ask；to be given
II．Choose the best answer for each blank．
1．I found________ necessary for a middle school student to master at least a
A．that B．very C. it D. no
2．They felt it a pity__________ us in time．
A．it not B．not
C．not being D．are
3．I think it better________ the truth.
A．you should tell B. for you to tell
C．of you to tell D．you
4．She asked ________ a room.
B．to be given
5．He went to the ball without __________
6．No one likes________ at in public
7．This factory is quite different from _________before．
A．what it was B．that it was
C．which it was D．what it was
8．I’1l give this book to________ wants to have it．
C．no matter whom
1．C 2．B 3．B 4．B 5. B 7. A 8．B
Step IV Test
T：Now let’s have a test. (show the screen．)Complete the following sentences using your own words. Do it all by yourselves and then check your answers in groups of four. Please look at the screen．
Complete the following sentences using your own words．
1．I don’t know…．
3. Please tell…….
4. I remember……..
5. Thank you……..
6．These doors and windows…．
8．I don’t think…．
1．I don’t know where the teacher is．
2．I think it important that we should take part in the discussion．
3．Please tell him not to be 1ate again．
4．I remember giving (having given)him the book yesterday．
5．Thank you for helping me．
6．These doors and windows need painting．
7．We should keep it in mind that our country is a developing one．
8．I don’t think that that shop assistant is honest．
9．Please remember to bring me the dictionary next time．
10．Please try reading the new words again．
Step V Summary and Homework
T：In this class，we’ve reviewed the object and done some exercises to consolidate
it．After class you should do more practice to master it better．That’s all for today．See you!
Step VI The Design of the Writing on the Blackboard
Unit 4 Gteen worlds
The Fifth Period
give，lend，bring，fetch take，pass，send；ask，write，tell，show，teach，make， buy…
Agree, ask, choose, hope, demand, expect, manage, offer, plan, promise, pretend。refuse，wish，fail，afford，determine.
The same meaning：
StepⅦ Record after Teaching